Review | Volume 17 Number 1: 0 | 02 Mar 2022

[Corrected] A practical approach to chronic kidney disease in primary care


Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a common clinical problem in primary care, can be defined as any abnormality of the kidney structure and/or function that has been present for at least 3 months. Over the past 20 years, the incidence and prevalence of CKD have been increasing in Malaysia in line with the rising number of non-communicable diseases. At present, CKD has no cure. The treatment of CKD is very much dependent on early diagnosis and prevention of CKD progression. In this article, we aim to illustrate a practical approach to CKD in primary care, including diagnosis, evaluation, and management of CKD.

*This article has been corrected. The full text in PDF downloadable via the DOWNLOAD button is the latest version. The erratum can be found here. The previous version is available here but readers should refer to the corrected version.