Original Article | Volume 19: 18 | 12 Jun 2024

Association between lifestyle factors and hypertension control in Indonesian primary healthcare settings: A cross-sectional study


Introduction: A healthy lifestyle influences hypertension control. However, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle on hypertension remain elusive. This study aimed to analyse the association between lifestyle factors and hypertension control among patients with hypertension.
Methods: This cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted from June to December 2022 among 265 patients with hypertension from the Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat. The status of hypertension control was assessed by checking the serial blood pressure. The physical activity (PA) level, sleep quality, stress level and eating pattern were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; and 24-Hour Food Recall Questionnaire, Adolescent Food Habits Checklist and Emotional Eating Scale, respectively. Stepwise binary logistic regression and a generalised linear model were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: Approximately 72.2% of the participants had uncontrolled hypertension. The majority showed a low PA level (46%), normal stress level (94.7%), good sleep quality (80%), low caloric intake (95.5%), neutral food habit (55.5%) and low emotional eating (93.2%). Sex (P=0.030), age (P=0.018), PA level (P=0.011), sleep quality (P=0.032) and stress level (P=0.030) significantly influenced hypertension control. Specifically, moderate (odds ratio [OR]=5.868, 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.024–11.798, P=0.000) and vigorous PA levels (OR=2.188, 95% CI=1.026–4.678, P=0.042) were significantly associated with hypertension control.
Conclusion: Moderate and vigorous PA levels are lifestyle factors that may play a role in controlling hypertension.