Original Article | Volume 18: 36 | 14 Jun 2023

Demographic and cardiovascular risk factors associated with pre-frailty and frailty among community-dwelling older adults in Jakarta, Indonesia: Active Aging Study


Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of frailty and its determinants, especially in relation to chronic disease and lifestyle among elderly individuals.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 278 individuals aged 60 years and over living in Jakarta. All participants underwent assessment, including medical history-taking, physical examination and blood tests for the sugar level and lipid profile. Frailty was assessed using the Frailty Instrument for Primary Care of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. All data were analysed using the chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis.
Results: The prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty among the older adults was 40.6% and 28.8%, respectively. Female sex, lack of exercise, presence of cardiovascular diseases and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level were associated with pre-frailty and frailty. Education for <9 years was associated only with frailty. After adjustments for all covariates, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07–3.60; AOR=3.93, 95% CI=1.87–8.24), lack of exercise (AOR=14.81, 95% CI=5.07–43.26; AOR=49.48, 95% CI=16.20–151.09) and presence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR=5.32, 95% CI=1.40–19.20; AOR=6.06, 95% CI=1.63–22.56) were associated with pre-frailty and frailty. Meanwhile, education for <9 years (AOR=1.97, 95% CI=1.05–3.69) and high LDL-C level (AOR=3.52, 95% CI=1.14–10.88) were associated with frailty.
Conclusion: Exercise, early screening and intervention for cardiovascular diseases and maintenance of lower LDL-C levels may prevent and slow the progression of frailty.