Original Article | Volume 17 Number 2: 0 | 27 May 2022

Prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress among adult patients with hypertension in a primary care clinic: A cross-sectional study

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Psychological distress worsens the control of hypertension. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap and evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress among patients with hypertension in a primary care clinic.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Klinik Kesihatan Bandar Jerantut on hypertensive patients using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected from 391 hypertensive patients using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors.
Results: The response rate was 99.5% (389/391). The mean age of respondents was 60.1 years and 44.7% were male. The prevalence of psychological distress was the highest at 28.8%, followed by anxiety (21.3%), depressive (16.2%), and stress symptoms (13.9%). Uncontrolled blood pressure was significantly associated with depressive (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 3.32–12.28), anxiety (OR: 4.9; 95% CI: 2.75–8.82), and stress symptoms (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 3.06–12.98). Worry about the complications of hypertension was significantly associated with depressive (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.08–9.94), anxiety (OR: 10.8; 95% CI: 4.15–28.17), and stress symptoms (OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.14–13.22). Other associated factors were physical inactivity, employment, lack of formal education, and low household income.
Conclusion: A quarter of hypertensive patients experienced psychological distress in terms of depressive, anxiety, or stress symptoms. We recommend screening for psychological distress among high-risk hypertensive patients, especially those cannot achieve adequate blood pressure control or those who are worried about the complications of hypertension.

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