Original Article | Volume 18: 10 | 22 Feb 2023

Prevalence of undiagnosed depression among patients with hypertension: A cross-sectional study of Malaysian primary care perspective

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of suspected depression and its associated factors among patients with hypertension in a Malaysian primary care clinic.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a primary care clinic from 1 June to 31 August 2019 using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.
Results: The prevalence of suspected depression was 9.0%. The significant predictors of depression were Indian ethnicity (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]: 2.373; confidence interval [CI]: 1.147–4.907), divorce (AOR: 3.5; CI: 1.243–9.860), singleness (AOR: 2.241; CI: 1.182–4.251), heavy episodic
drinking (AOR: 7.343; CI: 2.494–21.624), low physical activity level (AOR: 1.921; CI: 1.093–2.274), low fibre intake (AOR: 1.836; CI: 1.061–3.178), uncontrolled blood pressure (AOR: 1.800; CI: 1.134–2.858) and presence of hypertension complications (AOR: 3.263; CI: 2.053–5.185).
Conclusion: Primary health care providers must screen for depression among patients with hypertension, particularly those within high-risk groups, and implement interventions that address modifiable risk factors.

https://perijinan.blitarkota.go.id/assets/slot-luar/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/akun/demo/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/slot-resmi/https://pmb.sttabdisabda.ac.id/aplikasi/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/wp-content/akun-pro-kamboja/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/toto-slothttps://dianasari.padangpanjang.go.id/public/gacor777/http://skpipm.id/triofus/http://103.165.243.97/doc/sign/https://simetal.donggala.go.id/library/https://ijabr.polban.ac.id/api/https://ijabr.polban.ac.id/-/pulsa/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/jp-thailand/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/-/sthai/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/-/stoto/https://perijinan.blitarkota.go.id/assets/jp-gacor/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/server-kamboja/https://silasa.sarolangunkab.go.id/css/maxwins/https://tpid.morbis.id/css/kakek-zeus/https://stidar.ac.id/sv388/https://dianasari.padangpanjang.go.id/js/https://alwasilahlilhasanah.ac.id/starlight-princess-1000/https://www.remap.ugto.mx/pages/slot-luar-negeri-winrate-tertinggi/https://bumdesjanjimanahansil.padanglawasutarakab.go.id/products/mpo/https://bumdesjanjimanahansil.padanglawasutarakab.go.id/pt2/https://bumdesjanjimanahansil.padanglawasutarakab.go.id/Assets/https://waper.serdangbedagaikab.go.id/public/images/qrcode/slot-dana/https://neurotarget.com/slot-dana/https://waper.serdangbedagaikab.go.id/public/images/qrcode/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://bumdesjanjimanahansil.padanglawasutarakab.go.id/dist/https://waper.serdangbedagaikab.go.id/storage/framework/https://bumdesjanjimanahansil.padanglawasutarakab.go.id/plugins/https://kla.katingankab.go.id/asset/scss/https://wbs.klaten.go.id/public/assets/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/http://103.165.243.97/doc/thailand/https://siipbang.katingankab.go.id/storage_old/maxwin/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/easy-win/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/unsign/https://csr.katingankab.go.id/asset/https://setwan.katingankab.go.id/assets/kearsipan/https://siipbang.katingankab.go.id/storage_old/uploads/https://siipbang.katingankab.go.id/storage_old/data_artikel/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/demo/https://siipbang.katingankab.go.id/storage_old/data_artikel/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/zeus/https://siipbang.katingankab.go.id/storage_old/data_rab/https://appv2.tanahlautkab.go.id/doc/persyaratan/https://simetal.donggala.go.id/arsip/https://simetal.donggala.go.id/cue/https://simetal.donggala.go.id/assets/https://setwan.katingankab.go.id/assets/environment/https://tpid.katingankab.go.id/images/https://jurnal.pap.ac.id/docs/https://siak.ust.ac.id/sgcr/https://siak.ust.ac.id/10k/https://dianasari.padangpanjang.go.id/pt2/https://siak.ust.ac.id/jp/https://jurnal.pap.ac.id/controllers/https://gen.dcc.ac.id/https://kidneyborneo.com/css/https://operator.dcc.ac.id/https://jurnal-itba.dcc.ac.id/https://lmsv2.stikesht-tpi.ac.id/https://sabilalmuhtadin.sch.id/css/https://skripsi.iai-darussalam.ac.id/airo/https://stairakha-amuntai.ac.id/assets/https://silasa.sarolangunkab.go.id/img/https://kuesioner.instidla.ac.id/asset/http://kwitansi.instidla.ac.id/database/http://lms.instidla.ac.id/backup/https://lpm.instidla.ac.id/wp-includes/block-patterns/http://mutu.instidla.ac.id/app/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/kantah/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/slot-depo-10k/https://ijabr.polban.ac.id/classes/slot-gacor-gampang-menang/https://ijabr.polban.ac.id/registry/https://ijabr.polban.ac.id/locale/https://lpm.instidla.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/operator/https://sipirus.sukabumikab.go.id/storage/uploads/pembahas/