Original Article | Volume 17 Number 3: 0 | 25 Nov 2022

Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among antenatal mothers attending health clinics in Alor Gajah, Melaka

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anaemia is common during pregnancy and can lead to miscarriage, intrauterine growth retardation, premature labour and antepartum haemorrhage. Anaemia in pregnancy is defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level of <11 g/dL.
Methods: This retrospective review included 407 antenatal mothers diagnosed with anaemia at 36±1 weeks of gestation at all 10 health clinics in Alor Gajah between January and December 2018.
Results: According to the district annual returns, 2,407 antenatal mothers (36 weeks of gestation) were registered in the health clinics in Alor Gajah in 2018. Among them, the prevalence of anaemia was 18.6% (n=448). However, there were only 407 cards found. Most participants were Malays (89.4%), aged 20–40 years (93.6%) and married (96.3%). Almost all anaemia cases (96.5%) were mild (Hb level of 9–10.9 g/dL). Approximately 34.4% of the mothers were already anaemic at booking; 77.6% belonged to the B40 income group; and 31.6% had poor pregnancy spacing of <2 years. Iron deficiency anaemia was the most common type of anaemia (51.0%), followed by dilutional anaemia (34.0%), which did not normalise at 36 weeks of gestation. Anaemia was associated with lower educational (P<0.05) and Hb levels at booking (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Having normal maternal Hb levels in early pregnancy especially at booking is crucial, as it may reduce the possibility of anaemia during pregnancy. Early screening and supplementation of at-risk pregnancies may be applied as a preventive strategy. Suitable methods of iron treatment and investigation need further exploration.

https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/sbobet/https://jakarta.perdami.or.id/idn/https://bkat.whs.or.id/public/platinum/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/depo-10k/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/toto/https://pesma-annur.net/kamboja/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/zeus/https://journal.loupiasconference.org/idn/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/luar-negeri/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/mpo/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/maxwin/https://roippo.org.ua/triofus/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/maxwin/https://kabarkalsel.com/uploads/akun-pro-thailand/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/idn/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/nexus/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/terbaru/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/zeus/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/thailand/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/easy-win/https://fush.fui.edu.pk/pasarantogel2/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/toto/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/depo-10k/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/pasarantogel2/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/pasarantogel2/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/platinum/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/khmer/https://virtual-economics.eu/https://jae.perhepi.org/depo-10k/https://digital.indef.or.id/https://jurnal.pusatsains.com/pasarantogel2/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/garansi/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/zeus/https://ejournal.usm.my/public/slot-luar-negeri/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/akun-pro-kamboja/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/idn/https://asaeca.org/wp-includes/pasarantogel2/https://asaeca.org/wp-content/slot-kamboja/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/demo-lucky-neko/https://ejournal.usm.my/public/slot-dana/https://www.hama-univ.edu.sy/slot-luar/https://js.lhu.edu.vn/judi-slot-triofus/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/mpo/https://lokakarya.arab-um.com/https://daurah.arab-um.com/https://alyaumalarabi.arab-um.com/https://publicaciones.svrid.org.ve/https://web.rsmatamakassar.org/asset/https://web.rsmatamakassar.org/akun-pro-kamboja/https://ojs.didaktik-der-mathematik.de/pasarantogel2/https://pjmhsonline.com/pasarantogel2/https://pusatsains.com/wp-includes/idn/https://pusatsains.com/wp-content/pasarantogel2/https://journals.uab.pt/sugar-rush/https://ojs.didaktik-der-mathematik.de/starlight-princess/https://nv.nung.edu.ua/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/classes/http://periodicos.unifap.br/https://jms.ump.edu.pl/pasarantogel2/https://iedi.edu.br/wp-includes/sigma/https://journals.zetech.ac.ke/slot-depo25-bonus25/https://www.unjc.cu/depo10k/https://untref.edu.ar/uploads/demo/gates-of-olympus/https://untref.edu.ar/uploads/demo/sweet-bonanza/https://fjot.anfe.fr/https://tokorumput.com/wp-content/slot-depo-10k/http://www.inmedsur.cfg.sld.cu/https://nrais.dgda.gov.bd/public/pasarantogel2https://separcontenidos.es/dana/https://mediapencerahanbangsa.co.id/https://journals.asmarya.edu.ly/pasarantogel2/https://pdamindramayu.co.id/images/luar/https://pdamindramayu.co.id/demo/https://learning.modernland.co.id/git/slot-depo-10k/https://aihc.amexihc.org/toto/https://ouvidor.rubineia.sp.gov.br/uploads/akun-pro-kamboja/https://cstvcnmt.gialai.gov.vn/demo/https://sedimentologia.org.ar/slot-depo-10k/https://conference.vestnik-vsuet.ru/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/wp-includes/mpo/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/wp-includes/sv388/https://journal.dntb.gov.ua/slot-depo-10k/https://fjot.anfe.fr/js/https://portalderevistas.uam.edu.ni/public/pasarantogel2/https://perhepi.org/fae/akun-pro-jepang/https://jltl.com.tr/idnslot/https://esic.novacanaapaulista.sp.gov.br/uploads/akun-pro-kamboja/https://journals.qmu.ac.uk/sv388/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/akun-pro-jepang/https://ois.unsa.ba/slot-deposit-pulsa/http://103.165.243.97/doc/git/https://www.chiesadellarte.org/https://www.rollingcarbon.org/https://www.savebugomaforest.org/https://www.sigmaslot-profil.com/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/slot-dana/https://www.sa-ijas.org/sweet-bonanza/https://hipnose.in/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/slot-luar-negeri/https://serenityprime.net/https://civitic.indoamerica.edu.ec/wp-includes/pasarantogel2/https://v-rouge.com/slot-depo-10k/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/akun-pro-thailand/https://loa.tsipil-uii.ac.id/sg-gacor/http://snabm.unim.ac.id/depo-10k/https://webscience-journal.net/https://www.chuka.ac.ke/gates-of-olympus-1000/https://data.energy.go.th/storage/https://jurnal.jsa.ikippgriptk.ac.id/public/luar/https://www.unjc.cu/sweet-bonanza/