Original Article | Volume 17 Number 3: 0 | 12 Jul 2022

The prevalence of gestational diabetes, associated factors and feto-maternal outcome among antenatal women attending health clinics in Terengganu

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a known risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM). The rising prevalence of GDM in the Asian population (11.7%) may explain the increasing incidence of DM in women. This study examined the prevalence of GDM, its associated factors and the foeto-maternal outcomes of women with GDM in Terengganu.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and September 2019 using secondary data from antenatal records in 40 health clinics in Terengganu for 2018. All pregnant women aged 25 years and above with or without risk factors for GDM were included in the study. Those with pre-existing type 1 or 2 DM were excluded. A total of 270 respondents were included. The prevalence of GDM and its associated factors were determined using descriptive statistics followed by multiple logistic regression.
Results: The prevalence of GDM in Terengganu was 27.3% (n=72). Logistic regression analysis found that BMI at booking (adjusted OR=4.51, 95% CI 2.13–9.55, p<0.001), history of GDM (adjusted OR=5.31, 95% CI 2.17–12.99, p<0.001) and family history of DM (adjusted OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.23–8.05, p<0.001) were the significant associated risk factors. Of women with GDM, 17.7% (n=11) had postpartum pre-diabetes based on modified oral glucose tolerance at 6 weeks postpartum. Univariate analysis using chi-square tests showed a significant association of neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia with GDM.
Conclusion: Because the prevalence of GDM in Terengganu is high, surveillance of GDM in highrisk pregnancies and effective glycaemic management should be emphasised to prevent adverse foeto-maternal outcomes.

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