Original Article | Volume 17 Number 2: 0 | 25 May 2022

The profile of headaches and migraine amongst medical students and its association to stress level, disability and self-management practices

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Migraine is the most common headache affecting young people that impairs their functional ability. This study aimed to determine the frequency of migraines among Malaysian medical students, the association between migraines, stress level, and functional disability among these students, and describe their self-management practices.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students in a private medical school in Penang state. All medical students in the study site were screened for the presence of headache symptoms and the diagnosis of migraine using a self-administered questionnaire comprising International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria. Other domains that were assessed were perceived stress level and functional disability, which were measured using the
Perceived Stress Scale and the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), respectively. The students’ self-management practices for their headaches were determined using a descriptive survey.
Results: A total of 374 medical students participated in this study and 157 (42%) students reported experiencing headaches. More than half (n=97, 61.8%) of those with headaches fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraines. Migraines were significantly associated with functional disability compared with non-migraine headaches (p<0.001); however, no significant difference in stress levels were reported between the two groups. During migraine attacks, sleep (n=73, 60.33%) and self-medication (n=56, 69.14%) were the most common self-management practices. Only 11.46% of the 157 students with headaches consulted a doctor.
Conclusion: A high proportion of medical students suffered from headaches and more than half of them had migraines. Migraine headaches were associated with significant functional disability. Very few students sought medical consultation and most students chose to self-manage their headaches.

https://bosaljournals.com/pages/https://asianmedjam.com/pages/https://iojpe.org/jepang/https://viguera.com/depo-10k/https://kpmsurabaya.id/slot-luar-negeri/https://kpmsurabaya.id/depo-10k/https://kpmsurabaya.id/pasarantogel2/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/atmos88/https://jms.ump.edu.pl/public/php/https://mamanimanulhaq.id/demo/https://perdami.or.id/wp-content/pasarantogel2/https://jurnal.pusatsains.com/mpo/https://ube.edu.ec/depo10k/https://jakarta.perdami.or.id/wp-content/depo-10k/https://jakarta.perdami.or.id/mpo/https://yaumarabi.arab-um.com/zeus-vs-hades/https://prosiding.arab-um.com/idn/https://sulsel.perdami.or.id/https://www.hnpublisher.com/akun-pro-kamboja/http://controlvisible.auditoria.gov.co/pages/sgm-depo/https://iojpe.org/public/https://kirimmurah.co.id/depo-10k/https://app.sinarjaya.co.id/pasarantogel2/https://mediaakademik.com/wp-content/slot-luar/https://mudalla.arab-um.com/pro-khmer/https://viguera.com/slot-thailand/https://asianmedjam.com/plugins/https://humanika.penapersada.com/public/wp/https://www.hnpublisher.com/wp-content/slot-luar-negeri/https://hardiknas.bpmpkalbar.id/akun-pro-platinum/https://journal.pesma-annur.net/pasarantogel2/https://ojs.isg-konf.com/pasarantogel2/https://mitrasmart.co.id/akun-pro-thailand/https://ideapublishers.org/pasarantogel2/https://asianmedjam.com/js/scatter-hitam/https://web.rsmatamakassar.org/-/pasarantogel2/https://www.journalprenatalife.com/public/https://isbrmj.org/public/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/system/idn/https://algede.org/wp-content/atmos88/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/resmi/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/slot-luar-negeri/http://ttdt.hvu.edu.vn/akunpro/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/akun-pro/https://brawijayahospital.com/assets/pasarantogel2/https://brawijayahospital.com/assets/pro-kamboja/https://ejournal.aibpmjournals.com/gates-of-olympus/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/app_v22/depo-10k/https://sibacargo.co.id/storage/akun-pro-thailand/https://masonhq.org/https://www.vertitech.gr/wp-content/situs/https://rsmatamakassar.org/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/slot-maxwin/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/slot-zeus/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/zeus-slot/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/maxwin/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/thailand/https://isbrmj.org/starlight-princess/https://apps.phar.ubu.ac.th/phargarden/userfiles/true-wallet/https://jakarta.perdami.or.id/idn/https://chiesadellarte.org/https://iojpe.org/thailand/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/zeus/https://journal.loupiasconference.org/idn/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/luar-negeri/https://arnet.or.id/akun-pro-kamboja/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/maxwin/https://ouvidor.rubineia.sp.gov.br/uploads/akun-pro-thailand/https://membership.iapi-indonesia.org/maxwin/https://kabarkalsel.com/uploads/akun-pro-thailand/https://hr.tarunabakti.or.id/idn/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/pasarantogel2/https://ktadigitalpgri.org/assets/dist/img/platinum/https://thepab.org/public/pro/https://digital.indef.or.id/https://journal.iapi-indonesia.org/garansi/https://ejournal.usm.my/public/slot-luar-negeri/https://ojs.co.id/wp-content/cache/https://ejournal.usm.my/public/slot-dana/https://www.hama-univ.edu.sy/slot-luar/https://js.lhu.edu.vn/judi-slot-triofus/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/slot-depo-10k/https://daurah.arab-um.com/https://publicaciones.svrid.org.ve/https://pjmhsonline.com/pasarantogel2/https://journals.uab.pt/sugar-rush/https://ojs.didaktik-der-mathematik.de/starlight-princess/https://nv.nung.edu.ua/http://periodicos.unifap.br/https://www.hnpublisher.com/wp-content/slot-gacor-malam-ini//https://www.unjc.cu/depo10k/https://untref.edu.ar/uploads/demo/gates-of-olympus/https://untref.edu.ar/uploads/demo/sweet-bonanza/https://asianmedjam.com/public/https://portalderevistas.uam.edu.ni/public/toto-slot/http://www.inmedsur.cfg.sld.cu/https://separcontenidos.es/dana/https://mediapencerahanbangsa.co.id/https://pdamindramayu.co.id/images/luar/https://kirimmurah.co.id/wp-content/scatter-hitam/https://learning.modernland.co.id/git/slot-depo-10k/http://controlvisible.auditoria.gov.co/public/https://ouvidor.rubineia.sp.gov.br/uploads/akun-pro-kamboja/https://cstvcnmt.gialai.gov.vn/demo/https://fanorpi.com.br/wp-content/https://conference.vestnik-vsuet.ru/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/wp-includes/mpo/https://bundamediagrup.co.id/wp-includes/sv388/https://editor.co.id/wp-content/akun-pro-kamboja/https://fjot.anfe.fr/js/https://www.unjc.cu/akun-pro-kamboja/https://jltl.com.tr/idnslot/https://esic.novacanaapaulista.sp.gov.br/uploads/akun-pro-kamboja/https://journals.qmu.ac.uk/sv388/https://isnujatim.org/slot-dana/https://perdami.or.id/wp-content/akun-pro-thailand/https://asianmedjam.com/akun-pro-kamboja/https://esic.novacanaapaulista.sp.gov.br/uploads/sigmaslot/https://www.rollingcarbon.org/https://asianmedjam.com/slot-deposit-pulsa/https://apps.phar.ubu.ac.th/nc/doc_files/bet/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/slot-dana/https://www.sa-ijas.org/sweet-bonanza/https://wpcpublisher.com/slot-luar-negeri/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/slot-luar-negeri/https://ojs.hospitalelcruce.org/pages/slot-luar-negeri/https://iojpe.org/atmos88/https://cwsconsulting.id/assets/uploads/slot-depo-10k/http://graduateschool.uniport.edu.ng/wp-content/slots/https://esic.novacanaapaulista.sp.gov.br/pro//https://arnet.or.id/akun-pro-thailand/https://vagas.unimedjau.com.br/storage/sigmaslot/https://lpmpkalbar.id/assets/depo10k/https://www.unjc.cu/sweet-bonanza/